Enhancing the Capacity of Community Health Centers to Achieve High Performance: Findings from the 2009 Commonwealth Fund National Survey of Federally Qualified Health Centers
Michelle M. Doty, Ph.D., Melinda K. Abrams, M.S., Susan E. Hernandez, M.P.A., Kristof Stremikis, M.P.P., and Anne C. Beal, M.D., M.P.H.
Michelle M. Doty, Ph.D., Assistant Vice President and Director of Survey Research, The Commonwealth Fund, firstname.lastname@example.org
M. M. Doty, M. K. Abrams, S. E. Hernandez, K. Stremikis, and A. C. Beal, Enhancing the Capacity of Community Health Centers to Achieve High Performance: Findings from the 2009 Commonwealth Fund National Survey of Federally Qualified Health Centers, The Commonwealth Fund, May 2010.
Federally Qualified Health Centers are community-based health centers that provide comprehensive primary care and behavioral and mental health services to patients regardless of ability to pay. This report highlights methods for strengthening FQHCs’ ability to provide care. These include formalizing partnerships with hospitals, improving office systems, adopting the medical home model, and increasing use of HIT.
Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) are community-based health centers that provide comprehensive primary health care and behavioral and mental health services to all patients regardless of their ability to pay or their health insurance status. Located in medically underserved areas, FQHCs are a critical component of the health care safety net. FQHCs serve patient populations that are predominantly low-income, minority, and uninsured or rely heavily on public insurance. Over 1,000 health centers operate approximately 6,000 sites throughout the United States and territories. In 2010, these centers will serve an estimated 20 million patients. The demand for health services provided by federally qualified health centers is likely to increase over time, particularly with the passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the nation's health care reform legislation. Since health centers play such a critical role in providing quality care to vulnerable populations, it is important to assess system capacity and spotlight areas where support for improvements can lead to increased access and quality of care.
In 2009, The Commonwealth Fund conducted a national survey of all federally qualified health centers in order to assess whether FQHCs have the capacity to function as high-performing sites of care. A total of 795 centers responded to questions about their patients' access to care, including after-hours or 24/7 care, as well as questions about obtaining specialist referrals and procedures; coordination of care among providers and across settings; and engagement in quality-improvement activities and performance reporting. The survey also assessed health information technology adoption, the ability to track patient information and manage patient care, and the identified opportunities to strengthen health center capacity to be patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs).
Survey findings indicate that many health centers can provide timely access to on-site care. Many centers face barriers, however, providing off-site specialty care services for their patients, even if these patients have insurance (Exhibit ES-1). Centers that are affiliated with hospitals, however, can more easily obtain off-site imaging or follow-up treatment for their patients. Affiliated centers also reported more timely communication with hospitals about the care their patients receive in the ER and hospital, such as being notified that their patients have been admitted and receiving a discharge summary from hospitals.
- Nearly all (91%) health centers reported it is somewhat or very difficult to get off-site specialist care for their uninsured patients; 71 percent and 49 percent of centers, respectively, reported it is difficult to get specialist care for their Medicaid fee-for-service patients and Medicare patients.
- Six of 10 centers without any hospital affiliation for referrals reported difficulty in obtaining off-site specialty care for their Medicare patients, compared with 46 percent that have hospital affiliations.
- Obtaining off-site specialty care for their uninsured patients remains difficult regardless of whether centers have referral affiliations.
The survey also finds that 40 percent of centers have electronic medical records (EMRs). Yet, the capacity for more advanced health information technology (HIT), such as electronically ordering prescriptions and tests, creating and maintaining patient registries, tracking patients and tests, and providing alerts or prompts remains highly variable among centers. Findings indicate that centers that have more advanced HIT systems are better able to track patient test results, generate information about their patients, and remind clinicians to provide patients with tests results or appropriate services at point of care (Exhibit ES-2). More advanced use of IT systems enables centers to better manage care coordination among providers and across settings of care, such as hospitals and ERs.
- Twice as many health centers with advanced HIT use indicate their providers receive alerts to provide patients with test results than do centers with the lowest IT functional capacity (51% vs. 25%).
- Forty-three percent of centers with advanced HIT use report that their providers will receive a prompt at point of care for appropriate services needed by patients; by comparison, just 10 percent of centers with low HIT use are able to do this.
- Fifty-five percent of centers with advanced HIT use can track referrals until a specialist consultation report returns to the referring provider; only 42 percent of centers with low IT use have this capacity.