The Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) is a temporary program implemented under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to make health insurance coverage available to uninsured individuals with preexisting conditions until 2014, when exchange-based health insurance becomes available to all. The PCIP program began enrolling applicants in July 2010. This issue brief examines enrollment trends, early changes to plan structures and premiums, and estimates of out-of-pocket costs by utilization pattern and type of plan. It also provides information about the age and medical conditions of early PCIP enrollees. Although PCIP enrollment has been lower than expected due to affordability issues, a lack of public awareness, and the requirement that applicants be uninsured for six months, the plans are nonetheless playing an important role in making coverage available to otherwise uninsurable Americans with preexisting conditions.