Harkness Project Title: Developing a Comparative Effectiveness Research Agenda: A Pilot
Mentors: Gerard Anderson, Ph.D., and Sean Tunis, M.D.
Placement: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, and the Center for Medical Technology Policy, San Francisco, CA
Biography at time of Harkness Fellowship: Kalipso Chalkidou, M.D., Ph.D., a 2007–08 Commonwealth Fund Harkness Fellow in Health Care Policy and Practice, is associate director of research and development at NICE, where her work includes disinvestment guidance, evaluation of fast-tracking appraisals of technologies closer to licensing, and the review of social value judgments used by NICE committees. Previous positions include clinical research fellow at the University of Newcastle Medical School and surgical trainee in NHS hospitals in Newcastle and Cambridge. She has authored peer-reviewed articles in basic science, clinical medicine, and health policy, with publications in the BMJ, Health Economics, and the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, as well as a book chapter on economic evaluation in public health. Chalkidou graduated with distinction from the Athens Medical School in 2000 and holds a doctorate in prostate cancer from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. She is an honorary lecturer in health policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and was recently awarded a two-year grant from the Sasakawa Foundation to study current applications of pharmacoeconomics in Japan.
Chalkidou worked on developing a well-defined, systematic approach to translating an evidence report into a prioritized research agenda. To develop this approach, a comparative effectiveness review (CER) of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCI) and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) was performed. The Centre for Medical Technology Policy then convened a multi-stakeholder workgroup including patients, professionals, researchers, methodologists and consumer representatives to help translate the review into a prioritized list of evidence gaps and research questions.
Career Activity Since Fellowship
Current Position: Director, International Programs, NICE. (Updated August 2010)
Chalkidou K. Evidence and values: paying for end-of-life drugs in the British NHS. Health Econ Policy Law. 2012 Oct;7(4):393-409.
Sorenson C, Drummond M, Chalkidou K. Comparative effectiveness research: the experience of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 1;30(34):4267-74.
Littlejohns P, Weale A, Chalkidou K, Faden R, Teerawattananon Y. “Social values and health policy: a new international research programme.” J Health Organ Manag. 2012;26(3):285-92.
* Chalkidou K, Tunis S, Whicher D, Fowler R, Zwarenstein M. “The role for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs) in comparative effectiveness research.” Clin Trials. 2012;9(4):436-46.
Sorenson C, Chalkidou K. “Reflections on the evolution of health technology assessment in Europe.” Health Econ Policy Law. 2012 Jan;7(1):25-45.
Chalkidou K, Lord J, Obeidat NA, Alabbadi IA, Stanley AG, Bader R, Momani A, O'Mahony RM, Qatami L, Cutler D. Piloting the development of a cost-effective evidence-informed clinical pathway: managing hypertension in Jordanian primary care. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2011 Apr;27(2):151-8.
Rawlins MD, Chalkidou K. “The opportunity cost of cancer care: a statement from NICE.” Lancet Oncol. 2011 Sep;12(10):931-2.
Chalkidou K, Rawlins M. “Pharmacogenetics and cost-effectiveness analysis: a two-way street.” Drug Discov Today. 2011 Oct;16(19-20):873-7.
Stevens A, Chalkidou K, Littlejohns P. “The NHS: assessing new technologies, NICE and value for money.” Clin Med. 2011 Jun;11(3):247-50.
Faden RR, Chalkidou K. “Determining the value of drugs--the evolving British experience.” New England Journal of Medicine. 2011 Apr 7;364(14):1289-91.
Chalkidou K, Walley T. “Using comparative effectiveness research to inform policy and practice in the UK HHS: past, present and future.” Pharmacoeconomics. 2010;28(10):799-811.
Chalkidou K. “From research to health care practice: how the UK uses data on comparative effectiveness. Interview by Bridget M. Kuehn.” JAMA. 2010 Sep 8;304(10):1058-9.
Chalkidou K, Levine R, Dillon A. “Helping poorer countries make locally informed health decisions.” BMJ. 2010 Jul 16;341:c3651.
Chalkidou K. “The (possible) impact of comparative effectiveness research on pharmaceutical industry decision making.” Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Mar;87(3):264-6.
* Chalkidou K, Anderson GF, Faden R.“Eliminating drug price differentials across government programmes in the USA.” Health Econ Policy Law 2010 Feb 4:1-22.
Littlejohns P, Chalkidou K, et al “Assessing evidence and prioritising clinical and public health guidance recommendations: the NICE way.” In: Evidence-based public health: effectiveness and efficiency. Oxford University Press, 2010
Chalkidou, K. “The (potential) impact of comparative effectiveness research on pharmaceutical industry decision-making.” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 87;3 March 2010.
Briggs, A., Ritchie, K., Fenwick, E., Chalkidou, K., and Littlejohns, P. “Access with Evidence Development in the UK: past experience, current initiatives and future potential.” Pharmacoeconomics, Fall 2009
Chalkidou K et al., Comparative effectiveness research priorities: Identifying critical gaps in evidence for clinical and health policy decision making, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 25:3 (2009), 241–248.
Barnett D, Chalkidou K, Rawlins M. Comparative effectiveness research: a useful tool. Health Aff. 2009 Mar-Apr;28(2):600-1
Appleby J, Devlin N, Parkin D, Buxton M, Chalkidou K. Searching for local NHS cost effectiveness thresholds: results from a feasibility study, Health Policy 27 January 2009
Dhalla, I, Garner, S, Chalkidou, K, Littlejohns, P Perspectives on NICE’s recommendations to use health technologies only in the context of appropriate evidence development Int J Tech Assess Healthcare 25 (3):272-80
Faden RR, Chalkidou K, Appleby J, Waters HR, Leider JP. “Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom.” Milbank Quarterly; 88(4): 789 – 819.
D Whicher, K Chalkidou, I Dhalla, S Tunis, L Levin. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Ontario, Canada: Producing Relevant and Timely Information for Health Care Decision Makers, Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2009 pp. 585–606
* ** Chalkidou K, Tunis S, Lopert R, Rochaix L, Sawicki PT, Nasser M, and Xerri B. “Comparative-Effectiveness Research and Evidence- Based Health Policy: Experience from Four Countries.” Milbank Quarterly, June 2009; 87(2): 339-367.
Chalkidou K, “Comparative Effectiveness Review Within the U.K.'s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence,” The Commonwealth Fund, July 2009.
Chalkidou K, Culyer A, Naidoo B, Littlejohns P. “Cost-effective public health guidance: asking questions from the decision-maker's viewpoint.” Health Economist. 2007 Sep 3.
Chalkidou K, Hoy A, Littlejohns P. “Making a decision to wait for more evidence: when the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends a technology only in the context of research.” J R Soc Med. 2007 Oct;100(10):453-60.
Stevenson MD, Oakley JE, Chick SE and Chalkidou K. “The cost-effectiveness of surgical instrument management policies to reduce the risk of vCJD transmission to humans.” Journal of Operational Research Society. Published online April 2008.
* Anderson, GF and Chalkidou K, “Drug dependency crisis,” The House Magazine Sep 2007, Policy Briefing, Issue 1230, prepared for the 2007 Labour Party Conference.
Chalkidou K, Walley T, Littlejohns P et al: “Evidence-informed evidence-making,” Journal of Health Service Research and Policy 2008;13:167-173.
K Chalkidou, J Lord, et al., “Evidence based decision making in healthcare: when should we wait for more information?” Health Affairs 27, no. 6 (2008): 1642-1653.
Chalkidou K, Culyer T, Littlejohns P et al: Imbalances in R&D funding in the UK: can NICE research recommendations make a difference? Evidence and Policy 4(4), 2008: 355-369.
* Tunis SR, Chalkidou K. “Coverage with evidence development: a very good beginning, but much to be done,” Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007; 23(4):432-5.
* Anderson GF, Chalkidou K. “Spending on Medical Care: More is better?” Journal of the American Medical Association 2008; 299(20):2444-5.
Chalkidou K., et al., “Economic evaluation in NICE public health guidance,” In The Future of Health: Burdens, Challenges and Opportunities, Judge Business School, Cambridge, 2008 (Palgrave).
* Anderson GF, Chalkidou K, Herring B. “Prices are the reason for higher US spending.” In: Beyond Learned Helplessness: America’s Health Care Cost Conundrum. Brookings Institution, 2008.