Harkness Project Title: Income Inequalities in Waiting Times for Health Care Services: A Multi-Country Analysis
Biography at time of Harkness Fellowship: Claudia Sanmartin, Ph.D. is a senior research analyst in the Health Information and Research Group at Statistics Canada, where she plays an active role in conducting research and developing new data sources to meet emerging information needs in the area of health, health care, and health system performance. She is also an adjunct research professor in the Department of Community Health Science at the University of Calgary, where she is also a member of the Western Canada Waiting List Project. Her current research interests include access to health care services with a specific focus on waiting times and non-need determinants of access to care such as socio-economic status; development of benchmarks for waiting times; and non-need determinants of care and the identification of potential inequities. Dr. Sanmartin holds a doctorate in health services research from the University of British Columbia and a master's degree in health administration from the University of Toronto.
Project: Sanmartin first explored the relationship between socioeconomic factors and waiting times for specialist consultations and non-emergency surgery in Canada. To do so, she used data from Canada’s Health Services Access Survey. She then conducted an additional analysis of the 2007 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Adults to assess the relationship between income and primary care waiting times in seven countries, including Canada and the U.S.
Career Activity since Fellowship:
Current Position: Chief and Senior Researcher, Health Services Research, Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada (updated 2/2014)
Afshar AE, Weaver RG, Lin M, Allan M, Ronksley PE, Sanmartin C, Lewanczuk R, Rosenberg M, Manns B, Hemmelgarn B, Tonelli M; Interdisciplinary Chronic Disease Collaboration. Capacity and willingness of patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases to use information technology to help manage their condition: a cross-sectional study. CMAJ Open. 2014 Apr 16;2(2):E51-9.
Weaver RG, Manns BJ, Tonelli M, Sanmartin C, Campbell DJ, Ronksley PE, Lewanczuk R, Braun TC, Hennessy D, Hemmelgarn BR. Access to primary care and other health care use among western Canadians with chronic conditions: a population-based survey. CMAJ Open. 2014 Mar 7;2(1):E27-34.
Rotermann M, Sanmartin C, Hennessy D, Arthur M. Prescription medication use by Canadians aged 6 to 79. Health Rep. 2014 Jun 18;25(6):3-9.
Sanmartin C, Hennessy D, Lu Y, Law MR. Trends in out-of-pocket health care expenditures in Canada, by household income, 1997 to 2009. Health Rep. 2014 Apr 16;25(4):13-7.
Ronksley PE, Sanmartin C, Campbell DJ, Weaver RG, Allan GM, McBrien KA, Tonelli M, Manns BJ, Hennessy D, Hemmelgarn BR. Perceived barriers to primary care among western Canadians with chronic conditions. Health Rep. 2014 Apr 16;25(4):3-10.
Carrière GM, Sanmartin C, Bryant H, Lockwood G. Rates of Cancer Incidence Across Terciles of the Foreign-born Population in Canada From 2001-2006. Can J Public Health. 2013 Oct 31;104(7):e443-9.
Maclagan LC, Park J, Sanmartin C, Mathur KR, Roth D, Manuel DG, Gershon A, Booth GL, Bhatia S, Atzema CL, Tu JV. The CANHEART health index: a tool for monitoring the cardiovascular health of the Canadian population. CMAJ. 2013 Dec 23.
Hoover M, Rotermann M, Sanmartin C, Bernier J. Validation of an index to estimate the prevalence of frailty among community-dwelling seniors. Health Rep. 2013 Sep 18;24(9):10-7.
Sanmartin C, Finès P, Khan S, Peters P, Tjepkema M, Bernier J, Burnett R. Modelling risk factor information for linked census data: The case of smoking. Health Rep. 2013 Jun 19;24(6):9-15.
Ronksley PE, Ravani P, Sanmartin C, Quan H, Manns B, Tonelli M, Hemmelgarn BR. Patterns of engagement with the health care system and risk of subsequent hospitalization amongst patients with diabetes. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013 Oct 9;13:399.
Cohen D, Manuel DG, Tugwell P, Ramsay T, Sanmartin C. Inequity in primary and secondary preventive care for acute myocardial infarction? Use by socioeconomic status across middle-aged and older patients. Can J Cardiol. 2013 Dec;29(12):1579-85.
Pomey MP, Forest PG, Sanmartin C, Decoster C, Clavel N, Warren E, Drew M, Noseworthy T. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of waitime management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times. Implement Sci. 2013 Jun 6;8:61.
Ronksley PE, Sanmartin C, Quan H, Ravani P, Tonelli M, Manns B, Hemmelgarn BR. Association between perceived unmet health care needs and risk of adverse health outcomes among patients with chronic medical conditions. Open Med. 2013 Feb 26;7(1):e21-30.
Carrière G, Peters PA, Sanmartin C. Area-based methods to calculate hospitalization rates for the foreign-born population in Canada, 2005/2006. Health Rep. 2012 Sep;23(3):43-51.
Manuel DG, Rosella LC, Hennessy D, Sanmartin C, Wilson K. Predictive risk algorithms in a population setting: an overview. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Oct;66(10):859-65.
Ronksley PE, Sanmartin C, Quan H, Ravani P, Tonelli M, Manns B, Hemmelgarn BR. Association between chronic conditions and perceived unmet health care needs. Open Med. 2012 Apr 24;6(2):e48-58.
Sanmartin C, Plano D, Font M, Palop JA. Selenium and clinical trials: new therapeutic evidence for multiple diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(30):4635-50.
Conner-Spady BL, Sanmartin C, Johnston GH, McGurran JJ, Kehler M, Noseworthy TW. The importance of patient expectations as a determinant of satisfaction with waiting times for hip and knee replacement surgery. Health Policy. 2011 Aug;101(3):245-52
Pomey MP, Forest PG, Sanmartin C, De Coster C, Drew M. Wait time management strategies for scheduled care: what makes them succeed? Healthc Policy. 2010 Feb;5(3):66-81.
Sanmartin C, McGrail K, Dunbar M, Bohm E. Using population data to measure outcomes of care: the case of hip and knee replacements. Health Rep. 2010 Jun;21(2):23-30.
Carrière G, Sanmartin C. Waiting time for medical specialist consultations in Canada, 2007. Health Rep. 2010 Jun;21(2):7-14.
Blackwell DL, Martinez ME, Gentleman JF, Sanmartin C, Berthelot JM. Socioeconomic status and utilization of health care services in Canada and the United States: findings from a binational health survey. Med Care. 2009 Nov;47(11):1136-46.
Conner-Spady B, Sanmartin C, Johnston G, McGurran J, Kehler M, Noseworthy T. 'There are too many of us to fix.' Patients' views of acceptable waiting times for hip and knee replacement. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2009 Oct;14(4):212-8.
McGrail KM, van Doorslaer E, Ross NA, Sanmartin C. Income-related healthinequalities in Canada and the United States: a decomposition analysis. Am J Public Health. 2009 Oct;99(10):1856-63.
Sanmartin C, Gilmore J. Diabetes-prevalence and care practices. Health Rep. 2008 Sep;19(3):59-63.
MacKinnon NJ, Sanmartin C. Middle of the health care pack: Canada's performance in the 2007 Commonwealth Fund international survey. Can Fam Physician. 2008 Jul;54(7):965-6, 970-1.
Sanmartin C, Murphy K, Choptain N, Conner-Spady B, McLaren L, Bohm E, Dunbar MJ, Sanmugasunderam S, De Coster C, McGurran J, Lorenzetti DL, Noseworthy T. Appropriateness of healthcare interventions: concepts and scoping of the published literature. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2008 Summer;24(3):342-9.
Khan S, McIntosh C. Sanmartin C, Watson D, Leeb K. (2008). Working paper series: Primary health care teams and their impact on processes and outcomes of care. Statistics Canada. Ottawa, ON.
MacKinnon N and Sanmartin C. “Middle of the health care pack: Canada’s performance in the 2007 Commonwealth Fund international survey.” Canadian Family Physician, July 2008; 54: 965-966.