Note: Data for 2000 (except UK 2001) and latest available (2016 for NL, NO, SE, USA; 2015 for AU, CA, FR, DE, CH, UK; 2014 for NZ). Mortality data from WHO detailed mortality files (released Dec 2018); Population data from WHO detailed mortality files, except for Canada (UN population database), USA (Human Mortality Database). Amenable causes as per list by Nolte and McKee (2004). Calculations by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (2019). Age-specific rates standardised to European Standard Population 2013.