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Kalipso Chalkidou

2007–08 Harkness Fellow Director of International Programs National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence


Harkness Project Title: Developing a Comparative Effectiveness Research Agenda: A Pilot

Mentors: Gerard Anderson, Ph.D., and Sean Tunis, M.D.

Placement: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, and the Center for Medical Technology Policy, San Francisco, CA

Biography at time of Harkness Fellowship: Kalipso Chalkidou, M.D., Ph.D., a 2007–08 Commonwealth Fund Harkness Fellow in Health Care Policy and Practice, is associate director of research and development at NICE, where her work includes disinvestment guidance, evaluation of fast-tracking appraisals of technologies closer to licensing, and the review of social value judgments used by NICE committees. Previous positions include clinical research fellow at the University of Newcastle Medical School and surgical trainee in NHS hospitals in Newcastle and Cambridge. She has authored peer-reviewed articles in basic science, clinical medicine, and health policy, with publications in the BMJ, Health Economics, and the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, as well as a book chapter on economic evaluation in public health. Chalkidou graduated with distinction from the Athens Medical School in 2000 and holds a doctorate in prostate cancer from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. She is an honorary lecturer in health policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and was recently awarded a two-year grant from the Sasakawa Foundation to study current applications of pharmacoeconomics in Japan.

Project: Chalkidou worked on developing a well-defined, systematic approach to translating an evidence report into a prioritized research agenda.  To develop this approach, a comparative effectiveness review (CER) of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCI) and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) was performed. The Centre for Medical Technology Policy then convened a multi-stakeholder workgroup including patients, professionals, researchers, methodologists and consumer representatives to help translate the review into a prioritized list of evidence gaps and research questions.

Career Activity Since Fellowship

  •  Director, International Programs, NICE, London, United Kingdom, 2009

Current Position: (updated 09/2017)

  • Director of Global Health and Development, Imperial College London

E-mail: [email protected]

Selected Publications

Grutters JP, van Asselt MB, Chalkidou K, Joore MA. Healthy Decisions: Towards  Uncertainty Tolerance in Healthcare Policy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2014.

Scuffham PA, Ratcliffe J, Kendall E, Burton P, Wilson A, Chalkidou K, Littlejohns P, Whitty JA. Engaging the public in healthcare decision-making: quantifying preferences for healthcare through citizens' juries. BMJ Open. 2014.

Chalkidou K, Marquez P, Dhillon PK, Teerawattananon Y, Anothaisintawee T, Gadelha CA, Sullivan R. Evidence-informed frameworks for cost-effective cancer care and prevention in low, middle, and high-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2014.

Chalkidou K, Marten R, Cutler D, Culyer T, Smith R, Teerawattananon Y, Cluzeau F, Li R, Sullivan R, Huang Y, Fan V, Glassman A, Dezhi Y, Gyansa-Lutterodt M, McPherson S, Gadelha C, Sundararaman T, Squires N, Daulaire N, Sadanandan R, Shiro K, Lemgruber A. Health technology assessment in universal health coverage.  Lancet. 2013.

Chalkidou K. About the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - NICE. Acta Med Port. 2013.

Chalkidou K, Vega J. Sharing the British National Health Service around the world: a self-interested perspective. Global Health. 2013.

Mate KS, Sifrim ZK, Chalkidou K, Cluzeau F, Cutler D, Kimball M, Morente T,Smits H, Barker P. Improving health system quality in low- and middle-income countries that are expanding health coverage: a framework for insurance. Int J Qual Health Care. 2013.

Lopert R, Ruiz F, Chalkidou K. Applying rapid 'de-facto' HTA in resource-limited settings: experience from Romania. Health Policy. 2013.

Chalkidou K. Evidence and values: paying for end-of-life drugs in the British NHS. Health Econ Policy Law. 2012.


Sorenson C, Drummond M, Chalkidou K. Comparative effectiveness research: the experience of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. J Clin Oncol. 2012.


Littlejohns P, Weale A, Chalkidou K, Faden R, Teerawattananon Y. Social values and health policy: a new international research programme. J Health Organ Manag. 2012.


Chalkidou K, Tunis S, Whicher D, Fowler R, Zwarenstein M. The role for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs) in comparative effectiveness research. Clin Trials. 2012.

Chalkidou K, Lopert R, Gerber A. Paying for ‘End-of-Life’ Drugs in Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom: Balancing Policy, Pragmatism, and Societal Values. The Commonwealth Fund. 2012.


Sorenson C, Chalkidou K. Reflections on the evolution of health technology assessment in Europe. Health Econ Policy Law. 2012.


Chalkidou K, Lord J, Obeidat NA, Alabbadi IA, Stanley AG, Bader R, Momani A, O'Mahony RM, Qatami L, Cutler D. Piloting the development of a cost-effective evidence-informed clinical pathway: managing hypertension in Jordanian primary care. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2011.


Rawlins MD, Chalkidou K. The opportunity cost of cancer care: a statement from NICE. Lancet Oncol. 2011.


Chalkidou K, Rawlins M. Pharmacogenetics and cost-effectiveness analysis: a two-way street. Drug Discov Today. 2011.


Stevens A, Chalkidou K, Littlejohns P. The NHS: assessing new technologies, NICE and value for money. Clin Med. 2011.


Faden RR, Chalkidou K. Determining the value of drugs--the evolving British experience. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011.


Chalkidou K, Walley T. Using comparative effectiveness research to inform policy and practice in the UK HHS: past, present and future.” Pharmacoeconomics. 2010.


Chalkidou K. From research to health care practice: how the UK uses data on comparative effectiveness. Interview by Bridget M. Kuehn. JAMA. 2010.


Chalkidou K, Levine R, Dillon A. Helping poorer countries make locally informed health decisions. BMJ. 2010.


Chalkidou K. The (possible) impact of comparative effectiveness research on pharmaceutical industry decision making. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010.


Chalkidou K, Anderson GF, Faden R. Eliminating drug price differentials across government programmes in the USA. Health Econ Policy Law. 2010.


Littlejohns P, Chalkidou K, et al. Assessing evidence and prioritising clinical and public health guidance recommendations: the NICE way. In: Evidence-based public health: effectiveness and efficiency. Oxford University Press, 2010.


Chalkidou, K. The (potential) impact of comparative effectiveness research on pharmaceutical industry decision-making. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010.


Briggs, A., Ritchie, K., Fenwick, E., Chalkidou, K., and Littlejohns, P. Access with Evidence Development in the UK: past experience, current initiatives and future potential. Pharmacoeconomics. 2009. 


Chalkidou K et al., Comparative effectiveness research priorities: Identifying critical gaps in evidence for clinical and health policy decision making. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 2009. 


Barnett D, Chalkidou K, Rawlins M. Comparative effectiveness research: a useful tool. Health Aff. 2009.


Appleby J, Devlin N, Parkin D, Buxton M, Chalkidou K. Searching for local NHS cost effectiveness thresholds: results from a feasibility study. Health Policy. 2009.


Dhalla, I, Garner, S, Chalkidou, K, Littlejohns, P Perspectives on NICE’s recommendations to use health technologies only in the context of appropriate evidence development Int J Tech Assess Healthcare 25 (3):272-80


Faden RR, Chalkidou K, Appleby J, Waters HR, Leider JP. Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. Milbank Quarterly. 2009.


Whicher D, Chalkidou K, Dhalla I, Tunis S, Levin L. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Ontario, Canada:  Producing Relevant and Timely Information for Health Care Decision Makers. Milbank Quarterly. 2009.


Chalkidou K, Tunis S, Lopert R, Rochaix L, Sawicki PT, Nasser M, and Xerri B. Comparative-Effectiveness Research and Evidence- Based Health Policy: Experience from Four Countries. Milbank Quarterly. 2009.


Chalkidou K. Comparative Effectiveness Review Within the U.K.'s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The Commonwealth Fund, July 2009.


Chalkidou K, Culyer A, Naidoo B, Littlejohns P. Cost-effective public health guidance: asking questions from the decision-maker's viewpoint. Health Economist. 2007 


Chalkidou K, Hoy A, Littlejohns P. Making a decision to wait for more evidence: when the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends a technology only in the context of research. J R Soc Med. 2007.


Stevenson MD, Oakley JE, Chick SE and Chalkidou K. The cost-effectiveness of surgical instrument management policies to reduce the risk of vCJD transmission to humans. Journal of Operational Research Society. 2008.


Anderson GF and Chalkidou K. Drug dependency crisis. The House Magazine. 2007. (Policy Briefing, Issue 1230, prepared for the 2007 Labour Party Conference).


Chalkidou K, Walley T, Littlejohns P et al. Evidence-informed evidence-making. Journal of Health Service Research and Policy. 2008.


Chalkidou K, Lord J, et al. Evidence based decision making in healthcare: when should we wait for more information? Health Affairs. 2008.


Chalkidou K, Culyer T, Littlejohns P, et al. Imbalances in R&D funding in the UK: can NICE research recommendations make a difference? Evidence and Policy. 2008.


Tunis SR, Chalkidou K. Coverage with evidence development: a very good beginning, but much to be done. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2007.


Anderson GF, Chalkidou K. Spending on Medical Care: More is better? Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008.


Chalkidou K., et al. Economic evaluation in NICE public health guidance, In The Future of Health: Burdens, Challenges and Opportunities, Judge Business School, Cambridge, 2008 (Palgrave).


Anderson GF, Chalkidou K, Herring B. Prices are the reason for higher US spending, In Beyond Learned Helplessness: America’s Health Care Cost Conundrum. Brookings Institution, 2008.