This project will compare manufacturer and net prices for prescription drugs outside the United States in order to summarize manufacturer-to-net ratios. Researchers will conduct a literature review for any new estimates of manufacturer-to-net price ratios outside the U.S. They will then collect product-level net sales of brand-name drugs by reviewing annual reports, SEC 10-K, and 20-F filings of the top 250 publicly traded pharmaceutical companies. Using IQVIA’s 2020 MIDAS data, the project will measure product-specific volumes in each country or region and calculate net prices in order to estimate the ratio of other-country manufacturer to net prices, the ratio of U.S. net prices to other-country manufacturer prices, and the ratio of U.S. net prices to other-country net prices.