Stephen Crystal, Ph.D., is research professor and associate director for health services research at the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, where he chairs the Division on Aging and the AIDS Research Group. He also serves as associate director for research at the Center for State Health Policy, providing scientific leadership for health services research and data development activities. Dr. Crystal has been a frequent advisor to federal, state, and local governments, foundations and health plans. The author of more than 150 journal articles, books, chapters, and reports on aspects of health care policy and aging, he is currently focusing many of his research activities on pharmaceutical care. He has served as visiting professor of health care policy at Harvard Medical School and as chief of the Division of Health Care Sciences at the School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Dr. Crystal received his doctoral degree from Harvard University.